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Ashura day is the 10th day or Muharram (the first month of the Islamic calendar). Since the beginning of this world, Ashura day has been a very important day. On this day great signs of Allah’s power and glory have appeared in the world. On this day many Prophets were born and they were instituted to the office of prophecy. On this day, Prophets, Saints and Sincere servants of Allah were blessed with miracles and spiritual powers. 
 
On Ashura Day the following have taken place: 
 
1. Repentance of Prophet Adam (Allah’s blessing be upon him) was accepted by Allah
2. The ship of Prophet Nuh (Noah) (Allah’s blessing be upon him) came to rest on a mountain called Al-Judi.
3. Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) (Allah’s blessings be upon him) was born on this day.
4. He got the title Khalil-ullah (friend of Allah) on this day.
5. The fire in which Prophet Ibrahim (Allah’s blessings be upon him) was thrown by the king Namrud become cool and means of safety for Prophet Ibrahim, by the order of Allah.
6. Allah delivered Prophet Ayub (Job) (Allah’s blessings be upon him) from distress and he was restored to prosperity.
7. By the Grace of Allah, Prophet Yunas (Jonah) (Allah’s blessings be upon him), after being swallowed by a huge fish (whale) for forty days, was casted out on the shore.
8. Prophet Mussa (Moses) (Allah’s blessings be upon him) got victory over Pharaoh.
9. Prophet Suleman (Solomon) (Allah’s blessings be upon him) was made a king to rule over mankind, Jins, Animals and the air.
10. Prophet Idris (Enoch) (Allah’s blessings be upon him) and Prophet Issa (Jesus) (Allah’s blessings be upon him) were lifted up alive.
11. Imam Hussain (Allah be pleased with him), the grandson of our beloved Prophet, got martyred at Karbala in Iraq.
12. The day of resurrection and judgement will take place on this day (Ashura)
 (Ghunia-Al-Talibeen & Tafseer-e-Sawi)    
Things to do on Ashura Day 
It is Mustahab (desirable) to practice the following on Ashura day: 
  1. To give to charity
  2. To offer Naf’l (optional) prayers
  3. To read Surah Iklas 1000 times
  4. To visit rightful Ullamas (Islamic Scholars)
  5. To take a bath
  6. To be kind to orphans
  7. To provide food generously to family members
  8. To apply Surmah (Collyrium) to the eyes
  9. To cut nails
  10. To visit the sick
  11. To Invoke blessings (Dua)
  12. To commemorate the martyrdom of Imam Hussain (Allah be pleased with him)
 (Fazial Al-Shahoor Wal Ayyam) 
Prayers for Ashura Day 
1. Perform 2 rakaats Naf’l prayer, after having a bath. In each rakaat recite Surah Fatiha once, Surah Iklas 10 times. On completion of the prayer recite Ayaat-ul-kursi once and Darood Ibrahim 9 times followed by the Ashura Day dua.
2. Perform 6 rakaats Naf’l prayer.
In each rakaat recite the following once:
  1.  
    1. Surah Fatiha
    2. Surah Wa-Shams
    3. Surah Qadr
    4. Surah Zulzilah
    5. Surah Iklas
    6. Surah Falaq
    7. Surah Na’as
On completion of this prayer read surah Al-Kafiroon once in Sajdah and then invoke the blessings of Allah. It has been written in Ghuniya-Al-Talibeen that after performing this prayer whatever good is asked for Allah is granted. 
Why we Fasting the Day of 'Ashura' ?

3. Perform four rekaats Naf’l prayer
In each rekaat recite Surah Fatiha once and Surah Iklas 50 times. Allah will forgive 50 years of sins and a palace will be prepared in paradise. (Rahatul Kulub)   
To Hold Meetings on Ashura Day 
Holding of religious meetings during the first 10 days of Muharram, specially on Ashura day, is lawful (Ja’iz) and it caries a lot of reward.In these meetings, speeches are made about the heroic deeds and virtues of the martyrs of Karbala. These meetings crease a sense of stability, peace and endurance in the hearts and minds of Muslims. On such occasions speeches should also include stories form the lives of Khulfa-e-rashedean (Rightful Caliphs) and other As-haabs (companions). 
Fatiha and Isal-e-Sawaab 
Fatiha and Isal-e-Sawaab is a way of sending rewards of good deeds to the souls of our beloved Muslim realtives, friends, scholars, Saints and Prophets who are no longer with us. Fatiha and Isal-e-Sawaab is lawful (Ja’iz) and strictly in accordance with the tenets of Islam. Some people, due to their ignorance, consider Fatiha and Isal-e-Sawaab as Haraam and Bida’at, but they are not right.On Ashura day, Muslims make Fatiha and Isal-e-Sawaab for the souls of Imam Hussain (Allah be pleased with him) and other martyrs of Karbala. For this purpose Muslims prepare sweet dishes, cold drinks (sharbat), fruit etc, and distribute these among relatives, friends and the poor. 
Fasting on Ashura Day 
Fasting on Ashura day carries a great reward. It is better to fast both 9th and 10th of Muharram. Our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) has said that this is the most rewarding fast next to Ramadhan. Our beloved Prophet has also said that fasting on Ashura day will compensate for one year’s sin. 
(Tirmidhi Sharif)  
It is said that when Prophet Nuh (Allah’s blessings be upon him) landed safely on mount Judi, after the flood, he along with others, including birds and animals, observed a fast on Ashura day to thank Allah  
(Tafsir-e-Sawi)       
Hazrat Hafsah (Allah be pleased with her) is reported to have said that our beloved Prophet practised the following four things without fail:
1. Fasting on Ashura day
2. Fasting during the first nine days of Zil-Hajj
3. Fasting for 3 days in every month (13th, 14th and 15th of each Islamic month)
4. Two rakaat sunnah prayer of Fajr.
 (Nasai Sharif)  
Hazrat Ibne Umar (Allah be pleased with him) has reported that our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said that fasting on Ashura day is equivalent to the reward of fasting for one year. 
(Ma Ssbata Bis-Sunnah) 
In  the light of the above references all Muslims should observe fast on Ashura day. 
'Ashura' commemorates the day that Allah saved the Children of Israel from Pharaoh.
Fasting on Muharram 10, known as the Day of 'Ashura', expiates for the sins of the past year. When the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) arrived in Madinah in 622 CE, he found that the Jews there fasted on Muharram 10 and asked them the reason for their fasting on this day. They said," This is a blessed day. On this day Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemy (in Egypt) and so Prophet Musa [Moses] fasted on this day giving thanks to Allah." 
The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, 
"We are closer to Musa than you are." 
He fasted on that day and commanded Muslims to fast on this day. (Al-Bukhari) The following year, Allah commanded the Muslims to fast the month of Ramadan, and the fasting of 'Ashura' became optional. It is also reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) intended to fast on the ninth and tenth. Ibn 'Abbas reported: The Messenger of Allah fasted on the day of 'Ashura' and ordered the people to fast on it. The people said, "O Messenger of Allah, it is a day that the Jews and Christians honor." The Prophet said, "When the following year comes, Allah willing, we shall fast on the ninth." The death of the Prophet came before the following year. (Muslim and Abu Dawud) For more on 'Ashura' and Muharram, please read:¤ The Significance of Fasting the Day of 'Ashura'  Virtues of the Month of Muharram & Fasting during It
- See more at: http://www.islamicity.com/Articles/articles.asp?ref=IO0801-3489#sthash.gEfNUPck.dpuf
'Ashura' commemorates the day that Allah saved the Children of Israel from Pharaoh.
Fasting on Muharram 10, known as the Day of 'Ashura', expiates for the sins of the past year. When the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) arrived in Madinah in 622 CE, he found that the Jews there fasted on Muharram 10 and asked them the reason for their fasting on this day. They said," This is a blessed day. On this day Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemy (in Egypt) and so Prophet Musa [Moses] fasted on this day giving thanks to Allah." 
The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, 
"We are closer to Musa than you are." 
He fasted on that day and commanded Muslims to fast on this day. (Al-Bukhari) The following year, Allah commanded the Muslims to fast the month of Ramadan, and the fasting of 'Ashura' became optional. It is also reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) intended to fast on the ninth and tenth. Ibn 'Abbas reported: The Messenger of Allah fasted on the day of 'Ashura' and ordered the people to fast on it. The people said, "O Messenger of Allah, it is a day that the Jews and Christians honor." The Prophet said, "When the following year comes, Allah willing, we shall fast on the ninth." The death of the Prophet came before the following year. (Muslim and Abu Dawud) For more on 'Ashura' and Muharram, please read:¤ The Significance of Fasting the Day of 'Ashura'  Virtues of the Month of Muharram & Fasting during It
- See more at: http://www.islamicity.com/Articles/articles.asp?ref=IO0801-3489#sthash.gEfNUPck.dpuf
'Ashura' commemorates the day that Allah saved the Children of Israel from Pharaoh.
Fasting on Muharram 10, known as the Day of 'Ashura', expiates for the sins of the past year. When the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) arrived in Madinah in 622 CE, he found that the Jews there fasted on Muharram 10 and asked them the reason for their fasting on this day. They said," This is a blessed day. On this day Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemy (in Egypt) and so Prophet Musa [Moses] fasted on this day giving thanks to Allah." 
The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, 
"We are closer to Musa than you are." 
He fasted on that day and commanded Muslims to fast on this day. (Al-Bukhari) The following year, Allah commanded the Muslims to fast the month of Ramadan, and the fasting of 'Ashura' became optional. It is also reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) intended to fast on the ninth and tenth. Ibn 'Abbas reported: The Messenger of Allah fasted on the day of 'Ashura' and ordered the people to fast on it. The people said, "O Messenger of Allah, it is a day that the Jews and Christians honor." The Prophet said, "When the following year comes, Allah willing, we shall fast on the ninth." The death of the Prophet came before the following year. (Muslim and Abu Dawud) For more on 'Ashura' and Muharram, please read:¤ The Significance of Fasting the Day of 'Ashura'  Virtues of the Month of Muharram & Fasting during It
- See more at: http://www.islamicity.com/Articles/articles.asp?ref=IO0801-3489#sthash.gEfNUPck.dpuf
'Ashura' commemorates the day that Allah saved the Children of Israel from Pharaoh.
Fasting on Muharram 10, known as the Day of 'Ashura', expiates for the sins of the past year. When the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) arrived in Madinah in 622 CE, he found that the Jews there fasted on Muharram 10 and asked them the reason for their fasting on this day. They said," This is a blessed day. On this day Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemy (in Egypt) and so Prophet Musa [Moses] fasted on this day giving thanks to Allah." 
The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, 
"We are closer to Musa than you are." 
He fasted on that day and commanded Muslims to fast on this day. (Al-Bukhari) The following year, Allah commanded the Muslims to fast the month of Ramadan, and the fasting of 'Ashura' became optional. It is also reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) intended to fast on the ninth and tenth. Ibn 'Abbas reported: The Messenger of Allah fasted on the day of 'Ashura' and ordered the people to fast on it. The people said, "O Messenger of Allah, it is a day that the Jews and Christians honor." The Prophet said, "When the following year comes, Allah willing, we shall fast on the ninth." The death of the Prophet came before the following year. (Muslim and Abu Dawud) For more on 'Ashura' and Muharram, please read:¤ The Significance of Fasting the Day of 'Ashura'  Virtues of the Month of Muharram & Fasting during It
Thus, according to scholars, you may choose to fast 'Ashura' on three days (ninth, tenth, and eleventh); two days (ninth and tenth); or one day only (the tenth). The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, "Fasting the day of 'Ashura' (is of great merits), I hope that Allah will accept it as an expiation for (the sins committed in) the previous year." (Muslim) But this expiation of minor sins comes only if you avoid major sins. It is a big mistake to rely on fasting a single day to "wipe your slate clean." If you neglect your daily Prayers or the fast of Ramadan, or if you backbite, lie, commit adultery or other major sins, fasting on 'Ashura' alone will not atone for your sins. 

The great scholar Ibn Al-Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (b. 691 AH/1292 CE) wrote: This misguided person does not know that fasting in Ramadan and praying five times a day are much more important than fasting on the Day of Arafah and the Day of 'Ashura', and that they expiate for the sins between one Ramadan and the next, or between one Friday and the next, so long as one avoids major sins. But they cannot expiate for minor sins unless one also avoids major sins; when the two things are put together, they have the strength to expiate for minor sins. Among those deceived people may be one who thinks that his good deeds are more than his sins, because he does not pay attention to his bad deeds or check on his sins, but if he does a good deed he remembers it and relies on it. 
This is like the one who seeks Allah's forgiveness with his tongue (that is, by words only), and glorifies Allah by saying "subhan Allah" one hundred times a day, then he backbites about the Muslims and slanders their honor, and speaks all day long about things that are not pleasing to Allah. This person is always thinking about the virtues of his saying "subhan Allah" and saying "la ilaha illa Allah" but he pays no attention to what has been reported concerning those who backbite, tell lies, and slander others, or commit other sins of the tongue. They are completely deceived. (Al-Mawsu'ah Al-Fiqhiyyah, part 31, Ghuroor) You may hear of some customs associated with 'Ashura' such as cooking and eating certain foods on that day, wearing kohl or henna, or even merrymaking. Others consider this a day of mourning and wailing in honor of the Prophet's grandson Al-Husayn, who was killed in battle on that day. The scholar Ibn Taymiyah (b. 661 AH/1263 CE) stated that all of these are bid'ahs (reprehensible innovations) that should be avoided. Take advantage of this opportunity to bring yourself closer to Allah on 'Ashura' by fasting and praying for forgiveness.
- See more at: http://www.islamicity.com/Articles/articles.asp?ref=IO0801-3489#sthash.gEfNUPck.dpuf

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  1. asalamu aleikum akhi...i'd like clarification on the matter of reciting ikhlas 10times in each rakaat performed on yaumal ashura and the surahs you mentioned.maybe if you'd mention a hadith on that it would be helpful.
    SHUKRAN :-)

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    1. jazzak Allah khairian and i will try to post the hadith in shaa Allah

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